All of these factors are affected by the environment an adolescent grows up in. This is triggered by the pituitary glandwhich secretes a surge of hormonal agents into the blood stream, initiating a chain reaction to occur.
Self-concept The idea of self-concept is known as the ability of a person to have opinions and beliefs that are defined confidently, consistent and stable. The behavioral decision-making theory proposes that adolescents and adults both weigh the potential rewards and consequences of an action.
However, the creases in the brain continue to become more complex until the late teens. Some boys may develop gynecomastia due to an imbalance of sex hormonestissue responsiveness or obesity.
Relationships are vital in the social development of an adolescent due to the extreme influence peers can have over an individual.
Risktaking may also have reproductive advantages: For example, without a willingness to take risks, teenagers would not have the motivation or confidence necessary to leave their family of origin.
Sex differences are apparent as males tend to develop "larger hearts and lungs, higher systolic blood pressure, a lower resting heart rate, a greater capacity for carrying oxygen to the blood, a greater power for neutralizing the chemical products of muscular exercise, higher blood hemoglobin and more red blood cells".
Serotonin is a neuromodulator involved in regulation of mood and behavior. One is the constructivist view of cognitive development. Specifically, developments in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are important for controlling impulses and planning ahead, while development in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex is important for decision making.
Peer pressure is a large factor when youth who are questioning their sexuality or gender identity are surrounded by heteronormative peers and can cause great distress due to a feeling of being different from everyone else.
Several serotonin receptors have their gene expression change dramatically during adolescence, particularly in the human frontal and prefrontal cortex.
While children that grow up in nice suburban communities are not exposed to bad environments they are more likely to participate in activities that can benefit their identity and contribute to a more successful identity development. Children younger than age nine often cannot comprehend sarcasm at all.
At the conclusion of puberty, the ends of the long bones close during the process called epiphysis. Improvements are seen in both working memory and long-term memory.
Unlike children, teens put forth an effort to look presentable Improvements are seen in selective attentionthe process by which one focuses on one stimulus while tuning out another.
Divided attentionthe ability to pay attention to two or more stimuli at the same time, also improves. This may help explain sex differences in athletic performance.
The age at which particular changes take place varies between individuals, but the changes discussed below begin at puberty or shortly after that and some skills continue to develop as the adolescent ages.
The first places to grow are the extremities—the head, hands and feet—followed by the arms and legs, then the torso and shoulders. Reproduction-related changes Primary sex characteristics are those directly related to the sex organs. It has been recently found that demographic patterns suggest that the transition to adulthood is now occurring over a longer span of years than was the case during the middle of the 20th century.
Puberty Upper body of a teenage boy.
The recognition of inconsistent content in the self-concept is a common source of distress in these years see Cognitive dissonance but this distress may benefit adolescents by encouraging structural development.
Adolescents are much better able than children to understand that people do not have complete control over their mental activity. Pubescent boys often tend to have a good body image, are more confident, secure, and more independent.
The years of adolescence create a more conscientious group of young adults. Having unprotected sex, using poor birth control methods e.
The average age of onset of puberty is at 11 for girls and 12 for boys. These include the lateral and prefrontal cortices, among other regions. In addition, from a population perspective, there is an advantage to having a group of individuals willing to take more risks and try new methods, counterbalancing the more conservative elements more typical of the received knowledge held by older adults.Adolescence (from Latin adolescere, meaning 'to grow up') is a transitional stage of physical and psychological development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal adulthood (age of majority).
Adolescence is usually associated with the teenage years, but its physical, psychological or cultural expressions may begin earlier .Download